By Vandenbussche D., Nemhauser G. L.
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Additional info for A branch-and-cut algorithm for nonconvex quadratic programs with box constraints
With regard to the absolute majority system, it offers on the one hand the advantage of granting a higher degree of legitimacy to the winner as he or she will be backed by the majority of voters, at least in the runoff. On the other hand, in the first round of an election under an absolute major- 26 Elections and Electoral Systems ity system, voters are free to vote according to their real preference, which may enhance the dispersion of votes and encourage party fragmentation. This factor is likely to effect governability, especially when presidential elections are held at the same time as parliamentary elections and presidential candidates run as the most visible candidate of the party in the competition for parliamentary seats.
If no candidate achieves this majority, a runoff takes place. This system is only used for both chambers in Haiti. (3) Binominal system. The members of parliament are elected in twomember constituencies. It combines personal voting with a list element in order to structure the vote along party or party-alliance lines. The party with the most votes is given one seat and the party with the second-most votes gets the other. A list only wins both seats if it wins more than twice the number of votes than the second list.
Perform all the functions of a supreme electoral authority, the manager of elections, and the supreme electoral court of justice. In some constitutions (Costa Rica, Venezuela), the electoral authority is defined as the fourth branch of the government in addition to the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. In some countries, however, these functions are split into two autonomous organizations, one that is responsible for electoral administration, while the other serves as the supreme body for electoral justice (justicia electoral) settling disputes on electoral matters.