A.D. 381 : heretics, pagans, and the dawn of the by Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Emperor of Rome Theodosius I;

By Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Freeman, Charles

Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates concerning the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's function was once made to seem as a consensual ruling by way of the Council of Constantinople.

summary: Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates in regards to the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's position was once made to seem as a consensual ruling by way of the Council of Constantinople

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Slavery is God’s punishment for sin’, as Augustine put it in his City of God. I am reminded of the nineteenth-century bishop of Vermont who expressed his personal revulsion for slavery but who acknowledged that his ‘frail intellect’ on the subject had to be overruled by the authority of God on the matter as clearly expressed in the scriptures. Despite this apparently divine support for the institution, it was Christians who initiated the abolition of slavery. ’ It is equally possible to conceive of a (Christian) God who has created the world to run according to stable natural laws and who exults in giving human beings reasoning minds to discover and understand them.

The left wing of the cavalry pushed the Goths back on to their wagons, and their line appeared to be about to break. Suddenly a large contingent of Gothic cavalry bore down on the Romans and to their horror they found themselves trapped between the wagons and the enemy cavalry. As the Roman cavalry disintegrated, the Goths were able to attack the infantry from the left. Roman legionaries were virtually unbeatable on open ground, where they could make use of their weapons, but in a restricted space they quickly lost the initiative.

Ammianus Marcellinus tells how he flailed about in desperation as he lost his speech. Nothing could be done to save him and he died soon afterwards. In hindsight, Valentinian can be seen to have been the last Roman emperor to enjoy military dominance over Rome’s enemies. The succession in the west was not secure and again rested on the elevation of Valentinian’s own family. His son, Gratian, had already been declared of imperial status in 367 when only eight, and so he, still aged only sixteen, became senior emperor in the west.

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