Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani

By L. Magnani

This ebook ties jointly the troubles of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, exhibiting for instance the connections among medical pondering and medical examiner structures. It lays out an invaluable basic framework for dialogue of quite a few sorts of abduction. It develops vital rules approximately elements of abductive reasoning which have been quite overlooked in cognitive technological know-how, together with using visible and temporal representations and the position of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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Additional resources for Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and Explanation

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If we want to deal with the nomological and most interesting creative aspects of abduction we are first of all compelled to consider the whole field of the growth of scientific knowledge cited above. We have anticipated that abduction has to be an inference permitting the derivations of new hypotheses and beliefs. Some explanations consist of certain facts (initial conditions) and universal generalizations (that is scientific laws) that deductively entail a given fact (observation), as showed by Hempel in his law covering model of scientific explanation (Hempel, 1966): in this case the argument starts with the true premises and deduces the explained event.

This kind of image-based hypothesis formation can be considered as a form of visual (or iconic) abduction. Of course such subconscious visual abductions of everyday cognitive behavior are not of particular importance but we know that in science they may be very significant and lead to interesting new discoveries (Magnani, et at, 1994; Shelley, 1996). If perceptions are abductions they are withdrawable, just like the scientific hypotheses abductively found. They are "hypotheses" about data we can accept (sometimes this happens spontaneously) or carefully evaluate (cf.

In this situation we have to rely on heuristics, that are rules of thumb expressed in sentential terms that help in arriving at satisfactory choices without considering all the possibilities. An example of simple heuristic could be a rule like "Wear green socks with white pants but not with blue pants". The famous concept of heuristic search, which is at the basis of many computational systems based on propositional rules (cf. section 5, this chapter) can perform this kind of sentential abduction (selective).

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