By A. Leone, C. Perrotta, B. Maresca (auth.), Luigi Sanità di Toppi, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska (eds.)
This e-book offers a helpful perception into how the world of plant version to abiotic stresses has advanced in the course of the program of the hot applied sciences. The e-book comprises 8 chapters written by means of striking scientists internationally, who perform learn on the leading edge in their disciplines. the subjects, addressed in updated particular chapters, contain results and responses of vegetation to stresses because of such elements as: 1) hot temperature, 2) low temperature (chilling and freezing), three) salt, four) drought, five) flooding, 6) heavy metals, 7) increased carbon dioxide, eight) ozone.
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The biological ratio of these results is evident. As temperature drops below freezing point, ice formation in the extracellular spaces causes movement of the water from inside the cell to outside, owing to the low ice chemical potential with respect to the water. Water continues to flow from the cells to the extracellular space up to the equilibrium of chemical potential. For instance, at the freezing temperature of -1 ODC CHILLING AND FREEZING 33 more than the 90% of the osmotically active water will flow out of the cells, resulting in severe osmotic and dehydration stresses [67, 71].
The uncontrolled increase of free radicals cooperates with cold in damaging membranes (causing lipid peroxidation), enzymes and macromolecules, particularly in chloroplasts and mitochondria. The cellular ability to contrast coldinduced oxidative injuries is an important component of cold tolerance. The relationship between abiotic stress tolerance and a functional antioxidant system has been found in transgenic alfalfa plants overexpressing a superoxide dismutase gene . At the cellular and molecular level, cold slows down all metabolic reactions and affects several molecular and sovramolecular structures.