By Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi
Why are there nonetheless so few girl scientists? regardless of the medical ethos of universalism and inclusion, ladies proceed to adventure actual social inequities as they try to achieve popularity within the medical group. according to large interviews and subsidized through quantitative research, this compelling paintings exposes the hidden limitations, sophisticated exclusions, and unwritten ideas that confront girls at each juncture alongside the medical profession path--from early life to retirement. via brilliant own money owed the authors provide an illuminating and sobering view of the results those hindrances have at the own lives of girls. They argue that ladies can achieve the medical place of work via effectively coping with "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend on for pro help and new principles. This benchmark quantity is essential interpreting for all scientists and social scientists--both male and female--and for girls contemplating a systematic profession.
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Additional info for Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology
A typical response was that of a four-year-old boy who said, ‘ . . ’ The strength of the male identiﬁcation with technology was also indicated by a boy who referred to a picture of a woman at a computer as ‘he’. Yet in several instances rigid classiﬁcations by sex appeared to be less ﬁxed as some of the children were able to identify both sexes with the role of the scientist. ’ ‘Something in a science. She’s looking. Doing gravity. Making things ﬂy. Someone who makes things we never saw before.
Barriers to entry in industry and academia fall most easily under conditions of expansion and prove more intractable under conditions of recession. In the United States, Finland, and Portugal, women gained an increased proportion of R&D (research and development) positions during the post-war expansion of the sciences (Ruivo, 1987) On the other hand, when the expansionary period ended in Finland in 1983, it became more difﬁcult for women, relative to men, to obtain posts in academic science. ’ take hold with renewed strength (Luukkonen-Gronow, 1987: 196).
Is there a one-to-one relationship between time put in and results achieved? Dr Tilghman attempted to reassure her students that ‘[h]ow one does in science is really dependent on your creativity and originality, and not how many mini-preps you can do in a 24-hour period’, but the students were not convinced. Unsure that this assessment applied to them, the students believed that the grant environment, now more competitive than their mentor had faced as a young scientist, inevitably increased the time that had to WOMEN AND SCIENCE : ATHENA BOUND be devoted to a scientiﬁc career.