By Evan W. Haley
Baetica, the present-day area of Andalusia in southern Spain, was once the wealthiest province of the Roman Empire. Its society was once dynamic and marked by way of upward social and monetary mobility, because the imperial peace allowed the emergence of a considerable heart social and financial stratum. certainly, so collectively important was once the imposition of Roman rule at the neighborhood inhabitants of Baetica that it calls for a brand new figuring out of the connection among Imperial Rome and its provinces."Baetica Felix" builds a brand new version of Roman-provincial kin via a socio-economic historical past of the province from Julius Caesar to the top of the second one century A.D. Describing and analysing the effect of Roman rule on a center province, Evan Haley addresses wide questions: what impression did Roman rule have on styles of cost and construction in Baetica, and the way did it give a contribution to wealth iteration and social mobility? His findings conclusively show that assembly the a number of calls for of the Roman nation created a considerable freeborn and ex-slave "middle stratum" of the inhabitants that outnumbered either the super-rich elite and the destitute negative.
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Extra resources for Baetica Felix: People and Prosperity in Southern Spain from Caesar to Septimius Severus
Though it may remain an exaggeration to speak of a “massive” presence of Italians and Romans in Ulterior before c. 27 One expression of that inﬂuence seems to be in the realm of coinage itself. 30 Fear emphasizes their weight in the events at Corduba of 49– 48; and he suggests that they had no formal role— or even, necessarily, inﬂuence— in the governing of those communities in which they were situated. The Roman citizens belonging to these conventus would have been, for the most part, urban dwellers.
47 cereals The most important stuff in the life of ancient man was bread. A variety of sources show the importance of cereals cultivation in late Republican Further Spain. Pompeius’ legate in Further Spain, Marcus Terentius Varro, 22 Rural Settlement and Production in Baetica sent grain from Ulterior to Petreius and Afranius, in addition to the Pompeians in Massilia (Caes. B Civ. 55 kilograms) of grain from the inhabitants of Ulterior in 49 (B Civ. 4). This latter ﬁgure may seem impressive in isolation but pales besides the 160,000 modii capacity of the forty or so subterranean grain-storage pits alone at the Caserío del Gramalejo, mentioned below, in Córdoba province.
Nor does this book aim to supersede Thouvenot’s monumental study of Baetica published in 1940. With the astounding explosion in archaeological survey, sondages, and emergency and systematic excavation within the conﬁnes of the province of Baetica since 1975, such an undertaking would be impossible. And it shall not be possible to adduce all the evidence for Baetican commodities in the Roman world outside Baetica. Nonetheless, this study will attempt to treat, if only summarily, most aspects of the production of goods and staples in Baetica within the period chosen.