By Victor G. Saúco, John C. Robinson
Bananas and plantains are significant fruit vegetation within the tropics and subtropics, creating a very important contribution to the economies of many nations. within the final 15 years, vast adjustments have happened in banana construction, between them the elevated value of fungal and viral ailments and their critical impression on Cavendish export cultivars, smallholder plantains and cooking bananas. adjustments in construction structures akin to secure greenhouse cultivation, natural, fair-trade and built-in cultivation and their respective certification schemes have additionally turn into favourite. This e-book offers an obtainable overview of the clinical ideas of banana construction and the way those relate to box practices. This new version has elevated insurance of global exchange information and regulations, breeding of recent cultivars relating to affliction resistance and markets, customers for genetically-modified bananas and the expanding function of endophytes in controlling pests and illnesses
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Extra info for Bananas and Plantains
The central positioning of ‘Grand Nain’ and ‘Williams’ in this height range can be clearly seen. ‘Grand Nain’ is a major export cultivar in world trade but it can be grown only in areas which are free of Fusarium wilt disease race 4. Since 2005, ‘Williams’ has started to replace ‘Grand Nain’ in many tropical export plantations in Central America and West Africa. This is due to the more hardy nature of Williams and its more ‘pack-friendly’ bunch. robusta type The main clones of ‘Robusta’ are ‘Tall Mons Mari’ in Australia, ‘Poyo’ in West Indies and West Africa, ‘Valery’ in Latin America, and ‘Americani’ in Reunion.
Breeding and Selection Selection criteria for genetic improvement The main objectives in breeding bananas and plantains are: 1. Resistance to pests and diseases. This applies mainly to: (a) The ‘Sigatoka’ complex including black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) and yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach). (b) Fusarium wilt disease, particularly to tropical race 4 (FOC TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC). This has been the most important effort of breeding programmes in recent years due to the almost total absence of commercial strategies to control this disease effectively.
The AAB plantains generally have starchy flesh and at maturity they are usually unpalatable unless boiled. Other AAB cultivars have sweet fruit and are used as dessert cultivars. Plantain subgroup There are two main types: French plantain type and Horn plantain type. French plantain type – There are nine known forms of French plantain which are grown in different parts of India, Africa and Central America. As a group they are characterized by the persistence of the male axis and male flowers and bracts.