Larry Gonick's the Cartoon History of the Universe, Book 1 by Larry Gonick

By Larry Gonick

An unique and informative illustrated guide  that makes international historical past available, appealing,  and humorous.

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59) 470). 61) have also been synthesized via intermolecular cycloaddition reactions. 61) \ 54 4 Photoaddition Reactions in Synthetic Organic Chemistry 3(2H)-furanones undergo efficient cycloadditions as "oxa-enones" 450). 63)474). 62) ~ o I"~" R R~- R2 ~ R2 o "Rl. 64) does not behave like the natural product itself. O C6HsCH20 . . . 64) 2COOH Allenes behave as somehow special olefins in such photocycloadditions 476a,b,477). 66) 4vsb). 67) has been isolated in moderate yields 479b). g. lactones and anhydrides, undergo cycloadditions to alkenes.

For the reaction to occur, the substituent on C4= of the naphthalenone system must be able to give a resonance stabilized radical when losing the hydrogen atom (CH(OCH3)2, C H = C H C H 3 ) ; otherwise t,3-migration of the substituent becomes the major reaction. 2 Photodimerization Reactions In this type of process an excited molecule adds to a second -- identical -molecule in its ground state, usually with formation of a ring. g. by an alkyl chain. Such intramolecular photodimerization reactions have been studied in detail 422).

21) have been prepared by photolysis of benzenes. 5 Photorearrangementof =,~ and ll,7-UnsaturatedKetones Enones undergo a variety of photorearrangements 333). 22) 337). 23)338). t. 24). Cleavage of the cyclobutane C - - C bond 13 to the carbonyl group affords a diradical with an allylic centre, the recombination then giving a rearranged tricycloundecenone s39). 24) indicate the cleaved and the newly formed C--C bond. 26) is converted into a cyclopropyl ketene ~ia a [3,3]sigmatropic rearrangement ~1).

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