Catholic Royalism in the Department of the Gard 1814-1852 by Brian Fitzpatrick

By Brian Fitzpatrick

The Gard in southern France was once the scene of in depth bloodshed in 1790, whilst competitors of the Revolution attempted unsuccessfully to avoid swap, and back in 1815, once they sought revenge via a delicately ready White Terror. The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 additionally provoked violent clash within the Gard, or even while the dep. looked as if it would take pleasure in tranquillity, political and social family members there have been soured by way of intimidation and worry. This examine exhibits how the royalist counter-revolutionaries have been in a position to polarise opinion via emphasising the Protestantism in their competitors. Anti-Protestant sentiment, accentuated via the organization of Protestants with the political and monetary associations of the Revolution and Empire, produced a counter-revolutionary circulate during which neighborhood issues predominated. The Catholic royalist leaders' ambition to accomplish greatest autonomy for his or her specific royaume du Midi introduced them into clash not just with critical govt but additionally with their proclaimed loyalty to the Bourbons.

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In this respect, the city was an intensified microcosm of the opposition which underlined social relations throughout the department of the Gard, particularly where the two communities lived side by side. There was no division of skills or of labour; while the Protestants had been identified most clearly with the rise of capitalist textile manufacturing, they had their Catholic counterparts, and the city's labour force was employed, in normal times, by both Catholics and Protestants, irrespective of the employee's denomination.

The entrance gave directly onto a new, wide boulevard, the Cours Neuf, which ran south west behind the Faubourgs de la Magdeleine and Saint-Antoine. The embankment along the canal became at the same time a choice residential quarter favoured by wealthy merchants - the Quai de la Fontaine. Thus, there was no shortage of open spaces in the city by the end of the eighteenth century, and these were thronged with people from the different faubourgs on Sundays and summer evenings - the bourgeois preferring the Place de la Couronne and the Jardins de la Fontaine, while the popular classes congregated on the boulevards or the Esplanade, depending very much on the faubourg they inhabited.

Etat nominatif des particuliers qui, le 25 aout 1814, jour de la Saint-Louis, ont dine dans la guinguette tenue par le sieur Nicolas Auzias,fixee sous I'esplanade. Report to Beugnot, 30 August 1814. 20 AN FlcHI Gard 13, Daunant to minister of interior, 7 October 1814. 21 J. A. Dulaure, Les tueurs du Midi, p. 28. 22 Certainly, the societe toy ale corresponded with Francois Froment who was in Paris enjoying an honorific yet minor position in the king's establishment, but there is no indication that the Catholic notables like de Calviere, de Rochemore, de Trinquelague, de Bernis or de Surville were as yet involved.

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