By Kenneth J. Banks
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Additional info for Chasing Empire Across the Sea: Communications and the State in the French Atlantic, 1713-1763
21 More recently, Daniel R. 22 Taken together, these studies have opened new doors in the historical research of communications. For the first time, historians have begun to perceive communications as an evolving human environment, continually re-forming and re-formed by the interplay of social interaction. 23 James Carey has been among the most influential theorists in refining the concept of communications. He has distinguished between communications’ two roles, a “transmission” component (dissemination of information) and a “ritual” component (sharing and legitimizing belief systems).
It was left to his successors, his son, the Marquis de Seigneleay, and the father and son team of Louis and Jérôme Phélypeaux, Comtes de Pontchartrain, to inaugurate significant imperial expansion. QXD 10/7/2002 4:09 PM 28 Page 28 Chasing Empire across the Sea creation of the huge stone harbour-fortress of Louisbourg on the new colony of Île Royale. The younger Pontchartrain also instituted the most important French transatlantic administrative innovation by creating a Bureau of Colonies, organized for the first time according to rationalized division by geography and function and staffed by career specialists who helped ensure a remarkable continuity in policy throughout the eighteenth century.
In the South Atlantic a small French squadron under the famed commander René Duguay-Trouin emulated Ducasse’s sack of Cartagena by capturing and ransoming Rio de Janeiro in Portuguese Brazil in 1711. At peace negotiations in the Dutch city of Utrecht, France permanently lost Acadia and its nearly two thousand inhabitants, as well as the strategic fishing bases on Terre-Neuve (Newfoundland). 62 France also ceded its first Caribbean settlement, Saint Christophe, to Great Britain. Although Philip kept the throne, the British prohibited any union of crowns, and they won, among other privileges, the Spanish Asiento.