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Sensible genomics--the deconstruction of the genome to figure out the organic functionality of genes and gene interactions--is some of the most fruitful new parts of biology. The turning out to be use of DNA microarrays permits researchers to evaluate the expression of tens of hundreds of thousands of genes at a time. This quantitative swap has ended in qualitative development in our skill to appreciate regulatory tactics on the mobile point.
Starting with the Escherichia coli co protein, or bacterial DNA topoisomerase I, an ever-increasing variety of enzymes has been pointed out that catalyze alterations within the linkage of DNA strands. DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous in nature and feature been proven to play serious roles in so much p- cesses concerning DNA, together with DNA replication, transcription, and rec- bination.
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Additional info for Computational Biology and Applied Bioinformatics
1977), or 4,400 base pairs (Sutcliffe, 1979), respectively. , 2001). 3 billion nucleotide bases in greater than 23 million sequences. With the development of new technologies, experts predict that the cost to sequence an individual’s DNA will be about $1000. This reduction in cost suggests that efforts in the area of comparative genomics will increase substantially, leading to an enormous database that vastly exceeds the existing one. By way of comparative genomics approaches, computational methods have led to the identification of homologous genes shared among species, and their classification into superfamilies based on amino acid sequence similarity.
Currently the phylogeny based on molecular markers such as 16S rRNA, mitochondrial, nuclear genes etc. html). But the single gene based phylogeny does not necessarily reflect the phylogenetic history among the genomes of organisms from which these genes are derived. Also the types of evolutionary events such as lateral gene transfer, recombination etc. may not be revealed through the phylogeny of single gene. Thus whole genome based phylogeny analyses become important for deeper understanding of the evolutionary pattern in the organisms (Konstantinidis & 24 Computational Biology and Applied Bioinformatics Tiedje, 2007).
Edwards, A. (1967) Phylogenetic analysis. Models and estimation procedures. American Journal of Human Genetics 19(3 Pt 1):233. ; Garrity, G. & others. (2009) The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 37(suppl 1):D141-D145. ; Fagot, G. & Fertil, B. (1999) Genomic signature: characterization and classification of species assessed by chaos game representation of sequences. Mol Biol Evol 16(10):1391-9. (2004). MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity.